The "Durant Roll"
is a census was taken by Bureau of Indian Affairs Special Agent Horace
It includes all persons who
were enumerated in the 1870 census and their known descendants, living
on 4 Mar 1907.
The actual census includes
the Sault Ste. Marie, Mackinac, Grand Traverse and Grand River bands of
Ottawas and Chippewas.
Then following are surname
index lists to the GRAND TRAVERSE BAND
and the SAULT STE. MARIE BAND.
No Boissonneau's are listed
as most stayed on the Canadian side of the border but there are a St.
Onge and Delphine's Campbell's.
STE. MARIE BAND
CORRESPONDENCE, FIELD NOTES, AND THE CENSUS ROLL OF ALL MEMBERS OR DESCENDANTS
OF MEMBERS WHO WERE ON THE ROLL OF THE OTTAWA AND THE CHIPPEWA TRIBES
OF MICHIGAN IN 1870, AND LIVING ON MARCH 4, 1907 (DURANT ROLL)
Records arranged for filming and introduction compiled by Sally Ann Cummings
Mark O. Keller, Historical
Consultant; Clarke Historical Library, Central Michigan University;
Burton Historical Collection, Detroit Public Library; Chippewa County
Historical Society, Sault St. Marie, MI; and the National Archives and
Records Administration 1996
On the four rolls of this microfilm publication, M2039, are reproduced
the 1908 census roll (known at the "Durant Roll" for its compiler,
Horace B. Durant) of the Chippewa and Ottawa tribes of Michigan, with
Durant field notes, and related correspondence. The Durant Roll contains
the names of all members or descendants of members enrolled with the Ottawa
and Chippewa tribes of Michigan in 1870 who were living on March 4, 1907.
The roll also serves as an index to Durant's field notes. The field notes
provided genealogical information used to determine if an individual was
eligible to be listed on the census. The correspondence consists of letters
received and sent by the Commissioner of Indian Affairs and Horace B.
Durant which concern the enrollment process, procedures, and policy. These
records are part of the Special Agent Files, 1807-1948, in the Records
of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Record Group (RG) 75, and are housed
at the National Archives Building in Washington, DC.
On March 3, 1905, Congress authorized the Chippewa and Ottawa tribes of
Michigan to file a petition in the U.S. court of Claims to settle questions
surrounding monies held in trust for they by the Federal Government (33
Stat. 1081). On March 4, 1907, the court handed down a judgment amounting
to $131,188.94, including interest, for the tribes. This payment was for
monies owed to these Indians based on the treaty of May 27, 1836 (7 Stat.
491). This amount was appropriated by an "Urgency Deficiency Bill"
(3 5 Stat. 8-27), and was approved February 15, 1908. In addition to these
funds, Comptroller of the Treasury, in a decision of June 16, 1902, held
that $9,786.69 was owed to the tribes (35 Stat. 70). This money arose
from the terms of the treaty of July 31, 1855 (11 Stat. 621), with the
Chippewa and Ottawa Indians of Michigan and was erroneously included in
the surplus funds of the Treasury.
On July 21, 1909, Horace B. Durant was instructed by the Commissioner
of Indian Affairs, Francis Ellington Leupp, upon the approval of the Secretary
of the Interior, Ethan A. Hitchcock, to compile a roll of the Ottawa and
Chippewa Indians of the State of Michigan who were eligible to receive
payments of these monies. The funds were to be divided among the Sault
St. Marie, Mackinac, Little Traverse, Grand Traverse, and Grand River
bands. Durant was instructed to enroll these individuals "all of
whom are members or descendants of members enrolled in 1870" who
were still alive on March 4, 1907, when the judgment was rendered by the
U.S. Court of Claims.
Durant submitted to the commissioner of Indian Affairs, Robert G. Valentine,
on October 27, 1909, a completed roll with the names of 7,396 persons
entitled to be recipients. The Commissioner reviewed the roll, disallowed
1,952 names on the roll, and signed it on January 25, 1910. He forwarded
the names of 5,444 persons entitled to payments to the Office of the Secretary
of the Interior for approval
Durant also prepared a supplemental roll to disperse the $9,786.69 derived
from the 1855 treaty. He forwarded the supplemental roll to Commissioner
Valentine on October 28, 1909. This roll contained the names of 236 children
who were born after march 4, 1907, and prior to August 1, 1908. Once again,
the Commissioner reviewed the roll, disallowed 34 names, and signed it
on January 25, 1910. He forwarded the names of 202 individuals to the
Office of the Secretary of the Interior for approval. On February 18,
1910, Frank Pierce, First Assistant Secretary to the Secretary of the
Interior, signed both rolls.
Entries on the Durant roll
are arranged alphabetically by the first letter of the surname and grouped
thereunder by tribal bands, for example the entries for the individuals
whose surname begins with A are grouped in the following order: Sault
Ste. Marie, Mackinac, Traverse, Grand River. The information included
on the census is as follows: 1870 roll number (this number indexes field
notes used by Durant), Durant roll number, Indian name, English name,
relationship to head of the household, age, sex, tribal band, residence,
and remarks. The following 1870 roll numbers were disallowed: 747, 1331,
2437, 3957, 4462, 4684, 6151, 6273, 6275, 6496, 6525, 7028, 7035, and
7168. Also disallowed were the Durant "present" roll numbers
that are annotated with check marks.
The field notes consist of Durant's preprinted worksheets on which he
recorded the following data for each family: head of the family on the
1870 roll; name of the wife or husband; name of the children and grandchildren,
and any additional information concerning the family. Letters pertaining
to various families are occasionally filed with the worksheets.
The field notes are arranged by page number 1 through 65. The cover sheets
for each page number lists the tribal band, chief, and the area of Michigan
where the data was collected. For example, the information on the cover
sheet for pages I & 2 is as follows: Sault Ste. Marie Band, Maw-Dosh
(chief), Marquette (Dead River). The 1870 census enrollment number which
indexes the worksheets is two-fold. the first number is the one assigned
to a specific family; the second number is the page number. In 1870 the
roll number for Daniel Cornstalk is 13-34 (Durant roll #1443). worksheet
13 for page 34 provides genealogical data on the Cornstalk family. It
should be noted that field notes are not found for all families listed
on the Durant Roll.
The bulk of the related correspondence is filed in central classified
files 45533--1908-053, parts 1-2, Special Agent. It is filed in reverse
chronological order with the most recent document first. Correspondence
subjects include complaints, questions, procedures for compiling the roll,
reports, financial data, additional census material submitted by individuals,
secretarial authorities, telegrams and the petition and correspondence
from Chippewa and Ottawa Indians of Walpole Island, Canada, to be included
on the Durant. Additional central classified files, peripherally related
to the roll, are also included.
Related material is located in The Ottawa and Chippewa Indians of the
State of Michigan v. The United States, General Jurisdiction case #27537,
Records of the U. S. Court of Claims, RG 123, National Archives and Records
Administration, Washington, DC.